James A. Gardner

SUNY Distinguished Professor; Bridget and Thomas Black Professor

Research Focus: Constitutional Structure of Politics, Federalism, Law and Democratic Theory, State Constitutional Law

Links: Curriculum VitaeSSRN

Contact Information

514 O'Brian Hall, North Campus
Buffalo, NY 14260-1100
Phone: 716-645-3607
Email: jgard@buffalo.edu

Faculty Assistant: Deborah L. Nasisi

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Books

ELECTION LAW IN THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM (Aspen: 2012)
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WHAT ARE CAMPAIGNS FOR? THE ROLE OF PERSUASION IN ELECTORAL LAW AND POLITICS (Oxford University Press:   2009)
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LEGAL ARGUMENT: THE STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE OF EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY (2007)
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INTERPRETING STATE CONSTITUTIONS: A JURISPRUDENCE OF FUNCTION IN A FEDERAL SYSTEM (University of Chicago Press:   2005)
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LEGAL ARGUMENT: THE STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE OF EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY (Michie: 1993)
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Edited Works

NEW FRONTIERS OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: DUAL ENFORCEMENT OF LAW DUAL ENFORCEMENT OF NORMS (J. Gardner & J. Rossi, ed.) (Oxford University Press:   2010)
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STATE EXPANSION OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES: INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS IN A DUAL CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM (editor) (Garland: 1999) vol. 1
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STATE EXPANSION OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES: INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS IN A DUAL CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM (editor) (Garland: 1999) vol. 2
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Journal Articles

Practice-Driven Changes to Constitutional Structures of Governance, ARKANSAS LAW REVIEW vol. 68 (2016)

Claims of Distinctive Identity in Federal Systems: Judicial Policing of the Limits of Subnational Variance, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (with Antoni Abat i Ninet) vol. 14 (forthcoming 2016) (peer reviewed)

Justice Brennan and the Foundations of Human Rights Federalism, OHIO STATE LAW JOURNAL vol. 77(2): 355 (2016)
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La contienda intergubernamental en sistemas federados, YEARBOOK OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF LAW (Córdoba, Argentina) (forthcoming 2016)
Website      

Partitioning and Rights: The Supreme Court’s Accidental Jurisprudence of Political Representation, FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW vol. 42: 61-94 (2014)
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Federalism and Subnational Political Community, HARVARD LAW REVIEW FORUM vol. 127 (2014)
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Autonomy and Isomorphism: The Unfulfilled Promise of Structural Autonomy in American State Constitutions, WAYNE LAW REVIEW vol. 60 (2014)
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Distinctive Identity Claims in Federal Systems: Judicial Policing of Subnational Variance (with Antoni Abat i Ninet)
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The Incompatible Treatment of Majorities in Election Law and Deliberative Democracy, ELECTION LAW JOURNAL vol. 12: 468 (2013) (peer-reviewed)

The Myth of State Autonomy: Federalism, Political Parties, and the National Colonization of State Politics, JOURNAL OF LAW AND POLITICS vol. 29 (2013)
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Election Law as Applied Democratic Theory, SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY LAW JOURNAL vol. 56: 689 (2012)
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How to Do Things with Boundaries: Redistricting and the Construction of Politics, ELECTION LAW JOURNAL vol. 11: 399 (2012) (peer-reviewed)

Sustainable Decentralization: Power, Extraconstitutional Influence, and Subnational Symmetry in the United States and Spain, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE LAW vol. 59: 491 (2011)
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Anonymity and Democratic Citizenship, WILLIAM & MARY BILL OF RIGHTS JOURNAL vol. 19: 927  (2010)
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Anti-Regulatory Absolutism in the Campaign Arena: Citizens United and the Implied Slippery Slope, CORNELL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PUBLIC POLICY vol. 20: 673 (2010)
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New York’s Inbred Judiciary: Pathologies of Nomination and Appointment of Court of Appeals Judges, BUFFALO LAW REVIEW: THE DOCKET vol. 58: 15 (2010)
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The Dignity of Voters - A Dissent, UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW REVIEW vol. 64: 435 (2010)
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Sustainable Decentralization: Power, Extraconstitutional Influence, and Subnational Symmetry in the US and Spain, BUFFALO LEGAL STUDIES RESEARCH PAPER (May, 2009)
Website      SSRN

In Search of Sub-National Constitutionalism, EUROPEAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW REVIEW vol. 4: 325-343 (2008)
Website      SSRN

What is "Fair" Partisan Representation, and How Can It Be Constitutionalized? The Case for a Return to Fixed Election Districts, MARQUETTE LAW REVIEW vol. 90 (2007)
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Deliberation or Tabulation? The Self-Undermining Constitutional Architecture of Election Campaigns, BUFFALO LAW REVIEW  vol. 54 p. 1413-1482(2007)
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New York's Judicial Selection Process is Fine – It's the Party System That Needs Fixing, NEW YORK STATE BAR JOURNAL vol. 79: 42-46 (2007)
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Representation Without Party: Lessons from State Constitutional Attempts to Control Gerrymandering, RUTGERS LAW JOURNAL vol. 37: 881 (2006)
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Wandering Lonely as a Cloud: National Citizenship and the Case for Non-Territorial Election Districts, ELECTION LAW JOURNAL vol. 5: 210 (2  2006)
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Democracy Without a Net? Separation of Powers and the Idea of Self-Sustaining Constitutional Constraints on Undemocratic Behavior, ST. JOHN'S LAW REVIEW vol. 79: 293 (2005)
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Giving the Gift of Public Office, BUFFALO LAW REVIEW  vol. 53: 859 (2005)
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The New Frontier of State Constitutional Law, WILLIAM AND MARY LAW REVIEW vol. 45: 1231 (2005)
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Whose Constitution Is It? Why Federalism and Constitutional Positivism Don't Mix, WILLIAM AND MARY LAW REVIEW vol. 46: 1245 (2005)
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A Post-Vieth Strategy for Litigating Partisan Gerrymandering Claims, ELECTION LAW JOURNAL vol. 3: 643 (2004)
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Coherence or Bust: Telling Tales about Election Law, CONNECTICUT LAW REVIEW vol. 36: 1  (2003)
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Forcing States to Be Free: The Emerging Constitutional Guarantee of Radical Democracy, CONNECTICUT LAW REVIEW vol. 35: 1467 (2003)
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State Constitutional Rights as Resistance to National Power: Toward a Functional Theory of State Constitutions, GEORGETOWN LAW JOURNAL vol. 91: 1003 (2003)
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Neutralizing the Incompetent Voter: A Comment on Cook v. Gralike, ELECTION LAW JOURNAL vol. 1: 49 (2002)
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One-Person, One-Vote, and the Possibility of Political Community, NORTH CAROLINA LAW REVIEW vol. 80: 1237 (2002)
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State Courts as Agents of Federalism: Power and Interpretation in State Constitutional Law, WILLIAM AND MARY LAW REVIEW vol. 44: 1725 (2002)
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The Regulatory Role of State Constitutional Structural Constraints in Presidential Elections, FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW vol. 29: 625 (2001)
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Can Party Politics Be Virtuous?, COLUMBIA LAW REVIEW  vol. 100: 667 (2000)
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Madison's Hope: Virtue, Self-Interest and the Design of Electoral Systems, IOWA LAW REVIEW vol. 86: 87 (2000)
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Devolution and the Paradox of Democratic Unresponsiveness, SOUTH TEXAS LAW REVIEW vol. 40: 759  (1999)
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Stop Me Before I Quantify Again: The Role of Political Science in the Study of Election Law, LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES LAW REVIEW  vol. 32: 1141 (1999)
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The Nature of the American Constitution: Is There a Constitutional Right to Vote and Be Represented?, AMERICAN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW vol. 48: 605 (1999)
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Section 98 and the Specialized Practice of Civil Rights Law, WESTERN NEW ENGLAND LAW REVIEW vol. 20: 39 (1998)
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Southern Character, Confederate Nationalism, and the Interpretation of State Constitutions: A Case Study in Constitutional Argument, TEXAS LAW REVIEW vol. 76: 1219 (1998)
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The Postivist Revolution That Wasn't: Constitutional Universalism in the States, ROGER WILLIAMS LAW REVIEW vol. 4: 109 (1998)
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Liberty, Community and the Constitutional Structure of Political Influence: A Reconsideration of the Right to Vote, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LAW REVIEW vol. 145: 893 (1997)
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My Aching Heart, ALBANY LAW REVIEW vol. 59: 1723 (1996)
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The "States-as-Laboratories" Metaphor in State Constitutional Law, VALPARAISO UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW  vol. 30: 475 (1996)
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The Court and the Changing Constitution: A Discussion, TOURO LAW REVIEW vol. 13: 135 (1996)
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The More Things Change…: Superficial State Constitutional Analysis at the New York Court of Appeals, TOURO LAW REVIEW vol. 12: 709 (1996)
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Shut Up and Vote: A Critique of Deliberative Democracy and the Life of Talk, TENNESSEE LAW REVIEW vol. 63: 421 (1993)
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The Ambiguity of Legal Dreams: A Communitarian Defense of Judicial Restraint, NORTH CAROLINA LAW REVIEW vol. 71: 805 (1993)
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What is a State Constitution?, RUTGERS LAW JOURNAL vol. 24: 1025 (1993)
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Discourse and Difference -- A Reply to Parness and Cogan, ST. THOMAS LAW REVIEW vol. 5: 193 (1992)
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The Failed Discourse of State Constitutionalism, MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW vol. 90: 761 (1992)
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The Positivist Foundations of Originalism: An Account and Critique, BOSTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW vol. 71: 1 (1991)
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The Uses and Abuses of Incumbency: People v. Ohrenstein and the Limits of Inherent Legislative Power, FORDHAM LAW REVIEW vol. 60: 217 (1991)
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The Uses and Abuses of Incumbency: People v. Ohrenstein and the Limits of Inherent Legislative Power, FORDHAM LAW REVIEW vol. 60: 217 (1991)
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Consent, Legitimacy and Elections: Implementing Popular Sovereignty Under the Lockean Constitution, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LAW REVIEW vol. 52: 189 (1990)
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Book Chapters

Em busca do constitucionalismo infranacional in Federalismo e Constituição: Estudos Comparados (Antonio Moreira Maués, editor) (Rio De Janeiro: Lumen Juris, 2012)

Dual Enforcement of Constitutional Norms, NEW FRONTIERS OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: DUAL ENFORCEMENT OF LAW (J. Gardner & J. Rossi, eds.) (Oxford University Press:   2011)
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State constitutionalism and the scope of judicial review, NEW FRONTIERS OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: DUAL ENFORCEMENT OF LAW (J. Gardner & J. Rossi, eds.) (Oxford University Press:   2011)
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Why Federalism and Constitutional Positivism Don't Mix, NEW FRONTIERS OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: DUAL ENFORCEMENT OF LAW (J. Gardner & J. Rossi, eds.) (Oxford University Press:   2011)
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Democracy without a Net? Separation of Powers and the Idea of Self-Sustaining Constitutional Constraints on Undemocratic Behavior (reprint), SEPARATION OF POWERS – U.S. PERSPECTIVES (Amicus Books:   2009)

Voting and Elections, STATE CONSTITUTIONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: THE AGENDA OF STATE CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM (G. Alan Tarr, Robert F. Williams, eds.) (SUNY Press:   2006)
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Power, Autonomy, and Politics under Local Government Charters in the United States, STATUTY JEDNOSTEK SAMORZĄDU TERYTORIALNEGO : REGULACJE EUROPEJSKIE I AMERYKAŃSKIE (LOCAL GOVERNMENT CHARTERS : EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN REGULATIONS) (Wieslaw Kisiel, ed.) (Zakamycze:   2005)
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Book Reviews

Review of Arthur Benz and Jörg Broschek, editors, FEDERAL DYNAMICS: CONTINUITY, CHANGE, AND THE VARIETIES OF FEDERALISM (2013), LAW AND POLITICS BOOK REVIEW vol. 24(4): 186-189 (2014)
Website

Review of Michael S. Greve, THE UPSIDE-DOWN CONSTITUTION (2012), LAW AND POLITICS BOOK REVIEW vol. 22(7): 327 (2012)
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Review of Jenna Bednar, THE ROBUST FEDERATION: PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN (2008), LAW & POLITICS BOOK REVIEW vol. 19(9): 668 (2009) 

Review of Lawrence M. Friedman, GUARDING LIFE'S DARK SECRETS: LEGAL AND SOCIAL CONTROLS OVER REPUTATION, PROPRIETY, AND PRIVACY (2007), LAW AND POLITICS BOOK REVIEW vol. 18(9): 762 (2008) 

Review of Christopher F. Zurn, DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY AND THE INSTITUTIONS OF JUDICIAL REVIEW (2007), LAW AND POLITICS BOOK REVIEW vol. 17(7): 620 (2007)
Website

Expert Testimony

Testimony before NY Senate Standing Committee on Elections, Hearing on S1616, S3372, S3996, S3995, S1266, S4035 (2009)